Nature S Machines

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Author: David E. Alexander
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128498978
Size: 38.89 MB
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Nature S Machines by David E. Alexander


Original Title: Nature S Machines

Nature’s Machines: An Introduction to Organismal Biomechanics presents the fundamental principles of biomechanics in a concise, accessible way while maintaining necessary rigor. It covers the central principles of whole-organism biomechanics as they apply across the animal and plant kingdoms, featuring brief, tightly-focused coverage that does for biologists what H. M. Frost’s 1967 Introduction to Biomechanics did for physicians. Frequently encountered, basic concepts such as stress and strain, Young’s modulus, force coefficients, viscosity, and Reynolds number are introduced in early chapters in a self-contained format, making them quickly available for learning and as a refresher. More sophisticated, integrative concepts such as viscoelasticity or properties of hydrostats are covered in the later chapters, where they draw on information from multiple earlier sections of the book. Animal and plant biomechanics is now a common research area widely acknowledged by organismal biologists to have broad relevance. Most of the day-to-day activities of an animal involve mechanical processes, and to the extent that organisms are shaped by adaptive evolution, many of those adaptations are constrained and channelized by mechanical properties. The similarity in body shape of a porpoise and a tuna is no coincidence. Many may feel that they have an intuitive understanding of many of the mechanical processes that affect animals and plants, but careful biomechanical analyses often yield counterintuitive results: soft, squishy kelp may be better at withstanding pounding waves during storms than hard-shelled mollusks; really small swimmers might benefit from being spherical rather than streamlined; our bones can operate without breaking for decades, whereas steel surgical implants exhibit fatigue failures in a few months if not fully supported by bone. Offers organismal biologists and biologists in other areas a background in biomechanics to better understand the research literature and to explore the possibility of using biomechanics approaches in their own work Provides an introductory presentation of the everyday mechanical challenges faced by animals and plants Functions as recommended or required reading for advanced undergraduate biology majors taking courses in biomechanics, supplemental reading in a general organismal biology course, or background reading for a biomechanics seminar course

Nature S Machines

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Author: Deborah Parks
Publisher: Joseph Henry Press
ISBN: 9780309095594
Size: 74.64 MB
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Nature S Machines by Deborah Parks


Original Title: Nature S Machines

Mimi Koehl tinkers with machines. Some are so tiny they can't be seen by the naked eye, and some disappeared millions of years ago. But Mimi isn't a mechanic. She's a biomechanist. Mimi Koehl uses engineering and physics to study the designs of living things that fly, swim, drift, and crawl. She loves solving riddles about how creatures-from feathered dinosaurs to flying frogs-live and move. Mimi's curiosity has led her into all kinds of natural neighborhoods. She has braved turbulent waters to explore how giant green sea anemones survive crashing waves. In Chile, while studying seaweeds, a rogue wave washed Mimi off one cliff and slammed her into another one. But nothing stops her desire for discovery. To uncover answers, Mimi has attached leashes to microscopic animals and created ingenious models using raspberry gelatin and even Silly Putty. Today Mimi searches the world-and her imagination-for answers to life's challenging mysteries. Using insights gained from interviews with her family,

Machines Of Nature And Corporeal Substances In Leibniz

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Author: Justin E. H. Smith
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400700413
Size: 31.34 MB
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Machines Of Nature And Corporeal Substances In Leibniz by Justin E. H. Smith


Original Title: Machines Of Nature And Corporeal Substances In Leibniz

In recent decades, there has been much scholarly controversy as to the basic ontological commitments of the philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). The old picture of his thought as strictly idealistic, or committed to the ultimate reduction of bodies to the activity of mind, has come under attack, but Leibniz's precise conceptualization of bodies, and the role they play in his system as a whole, is still the subject of much controversy. One thing that has become clear is that in order to understand the nature of body in Leibniz, and the role body plays in his philosophy, it is crucial to pay attention to the related concepts of organism and of corporeal substance, the former being Leibniz's account of the structure of living bodies (which turn out, for him, to be the only sort of bodies there are), and the latter being an inheritance from the Aristotelian hylomorphic tradition which Leibniz appropriates for his own ends. This volume brings together papers from many of the leading scholars of Leibniz's thought, all of which deal with the cluster of questions surrounding Leibniz's philosophy of body.

Species And Machines

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Author: Martyn Hudson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351615246
Size: 58.10 MB
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Species And Machines by Martyn Hudson


Original Title: Species And Machines

This book offers a re-examination of the relationship between humans and nature with a new methodology: by examining our entanglement with machines. Using central ideas of critical theory, it uncovers the suppression of nature through technology, tools and engines. It focuses on the ways in which human social forms have actively subjugated and destroyed other species in order to enhance their own social power and accumulation, leading to a new Anthropocene epoch in which human intervention is signalled in the geological record. Beginning with an account of the interactions between humans and other species, the book moves on to explore the hidden history of Marx and his obsession with machines, as well as new attempts to rethink a Marxist ecology, before proceeding to examine the manner in which technologies were used to suppress and destroy one particular species - the Whale of what we call the Cetacean Holocaust. Following this, there are analyses of the emergence of the ‘human encampments’ of the cities and the rise of mobile, locomotive cultures, and consideration of the relationship between machines of memory, and the ‘capturing’ of nature. A radical rethinking of classical social theory that develops new ways of thinking about ecological catastrophe and nature, this book will appeal to scholars of social theory and environmental sociology.

Darwin Machines And The Nature Of Knowledge

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Author: Henry C. Plotkin
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674192812
Size: 40.85 MB
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Darwin Machines And The Nature Of Knowledge by Henry C. Plotkin


Original Title: Darwin Machines And The Nature Of Knowledge

Bringing together evolutionary biology, psychology, and philosophy, Henry Plotkin presents a new science of knowledge that traces an unbreakable link between instinct and our ability to know. Since our ability to know our world depends primarily on what we call intelligence, intelligence must be understood as an extension of instinct. The capacity for knowledge is deeply rooted in our biology and, in a special sense, is shared by all living things.

The Nature Of The Mechanical Bond

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Author: Carson J. Bruns
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119046750
Size: 23.49 MB
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The Nature Of The Mechanical Bond by Carson J. Bruns


Original Title: The Nature Of The Mechanical Bond

“The story is told by THE inventor-pioneer-master in the field and is accompanied by amazing illustrations… [it] will become an absolute reference and a best seller in chemistry!” Alberto Credi “… the great opus on the mechanical bond. A most impressive undertaking!” Jean-Marie Lehn Congratulations to co-author J. Fraser Stoddart, a 2016 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry. In molecules, the mechanical bond is not shared between atoms—it is a bond that arises when molecular entities become entangled in space. Just as supermolecules are held together by supramolecular interactions, mechanomolecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are maintained by mechanical bonds. This emergent bond endows mechanomolecules with a whole suite of novel properties relating to both form and function. They hold unlimited promise for countless applications, ranging from their presence in molecular devices and electronics to their involvement in remarkably advanced functional materials. The Nature of the Mechanical Bond is a comprehensive review of much of the contemporary literature on the mechanical bond, accessible to newcomers and veterans alike. Topics covered include: Supramolecular, covalent, and statistical approaches to the formation of entanglements that underpin mechanical bonds in molecules and macromolecules Kinetically and thermodynamically controlled strategies for synthesizing mechanomolecules Chemical topology, molecular architectures, polymers, crystals, and materials with mechanical bonds The stereochemistry of the mechanical bond (mechanostereochemistry), including the novel types of dynamic and static isomerism and chirality that emerge in mechanomolecules Artificial molecular switches and machines based on the large-amplitude translational and rotational motions expressed by suitably designed catenanes and rotaxanes. This contemporary and highly interdisciplinary field is summarized in a visually appealing, image-driven format, with more than 800 illustrations covering both fundamental and applied research. The Nature of the Mechanical Bond is a must-read for everyone, from students to experienced researchers, with an interest in chemistry’s latest and most non-canonical bond. Read the Preface

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